JKBOSE 9th Class English Grammar Articles  

JKBOSE 9th Class English Grammar Articles

JKBOSE 9th Class English Grammar Articles

Jammu & Kashmir State Board JKBOSE 9th Class English Grammar

Jammu & Kashmir State Board class 9th English Grammar

J&K State Board class 9 English Grammar

1. ‘A’, ‘an’ and ‘the’ are called Articles.
The’ is called the Definite Article.
‘A’ and ‘an’ are called Indefinite Articles.
2. ‘An’ is used before a vowel or silent h; or before a consonant sounding like a vowel; as— 
An apple; an egg; an inkpot; an ox; an umbrella; an honest man; an M.A.; etc.
3. ‘A’ is used before a consonant, before u sounded as yoo, and before o sounded as wu.
A kite; a cart; a monkey; a unit; a useful thing; a one-eyed man; a basu European country; etc.
4. As a general rule, a Common Noun in the Singular Number should have an Article placed before it.
1. I saw dog in street.                      (Incorrect)
2. I saw a dog in the street.             (Correct)
3. I saw the dog in the street.          (Correct)
5. The’ is used in following cases :
1. Before a noun if we want to particularise it.
(He is the man who beat me.)
2. Before the names of rivers.
(The Ganga ; the Yamuna.
3. Before the names of mountain ranges.
(The Himalayas; the Vindhyas)
4. Before the names of oceans, canals, seas, gulfs and straits.
(The Indian Ocean ; the Arabian Sea)
5. Before the proper names of most religious and classical books.
(The Gita ; the Quran)
6. Before the names of hes of things which are unique.
(The sun; the moon; the earth)
7. Before Superlative Degree.
(The best; the noblest; the youngest)
8. Before a Proper Adjective when ‘people’ or ‘nation’ is understood
(but omitted when language is understood)
(The English; the Indians; the French)
9.Before an Adjective when the Noun is understood.
(The rich should help the poor.)
10. With Comparative Degree as in the following idiom :
(The higher you go, the cooler it is.).
6. The’ is generally not used in the following cases:
1. Before the name of a town, city or village.
2. Before the name of a continent.
3.Before the name of a country.
4. Before the name of a single island.
5. Before the name of a cape.
6. Before the name of a lake.
7. Before the name of a single mountain.
8. Before a Proper or Abstract Noun.
7. The’ is not used in any of the following cases:
1. Before the names of titles.
(Queen Victoria; King George)
2. Before a noun used in its widest sense.
(Man is mortal.)
3. Before a material Noun.
(Iron is a very useful metal.)
8. In certain well-established phrases, consisting of a Transitive Verb followed houby an Object, the Object is used without any Article.
(send word; shake hands; catch fire; leave school; lose heart.)
9. In Prepositional Phrases consisting of a Preposition followed by an Object, no Article is used before the Object when such phrases are intended to be used for all and on all occasions alike.
(by hand; at sea; by night; in debt; at school ; on earth.)
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