Gujarat Board Textbook Solutions Class 10 Science Chapter 16 Management of Natural Resources

Gujarat Board Textbook Solutions Class 10 Science Chapter 16 Management of Natural Resources

GSEB Solutions Class 10 Science Chapter 16 Management of Natural Resources

Gujarat Board Class 10 Science Management of Natural Resources Textbook Questions and Answers

Question 1. What changes would you suggest in your home in order to be environment-friendly?
The following changes can be made to be environment friendly:

  1. Check the wastage of water, close the taps properly, recycle the water of washing machine into toilets.
  2. Stop the use of bulbs and switch over to CFL lights.
  3. Use solar water heater and cookers, install solar cell panel for electricity.
  4. Reduce the garbage by not throwing such items which can be reused and recycled.

Question 2. Can you suggest some changes in your school which would make it environment friendly?

  1. Recycle the waste paper thrown instead of dumping it in garbage.
  2. Rain water harvesting system should be made.
  3. Plant more and more trees.
  4. Make compost of bio-mass collected like food waste, fallen leaves etc.

Question 3. We saw in this chapter that there are four main stakeholders when it comes to forests and wildlife. Which among these should have the authority to decide the management of forest produce? Why do you think so?
The local people staying near the forest should be given the authority to decide the r management of forest produce. They can keep a check on and control the misuse of the forest and its goods. They are the ones who do not exploit the forest and they know how to manage so it stays there for their future generations to come.

Question 4. How can you as an individual contribute or make a difference to the management of
(a) forests and wildlife
(b) water resources and
(c) coal and petroleum?
(a) Forests and wildlife – Use less paper, do not waste paper, as trees are cut down to make it. Do not buy any animal products which are made by killing them like fur, skin, tusk, horn etc.

(b) Water resources – Use buckets to take bath instead of shower. Recycle the water from washing machine for toilets use.

(c) Coal and petroleum – Use public transport or use the transport that uses CNG. Switch off lights, minimise the use of air-conditioner, room heater etc.

Question 5. What can you as an individual do to reduce your consumption of the various natural resources?
By following 5 R’s –
(a) Refuse -Refuse to purchase or accept those products which can be harmful to the environment e.g. plastic bags.

(b) Reduce – Reduce or minimise the use of resources, by saving electricity by switching off unnecessary lights and fans etc. and by walking whenever possible.

(c) Reuse – It is better than recycle. Instead of throwing used envelopes, we can reverse it and use it again. The plastic and glass containers, botdes can be reused.

(d) Repurpose – When an object cannot be used for the purpose for which it is made then use it for some other useful purpose e.g. growing plants in broken china clay utensils.

(e) Recycle – Collect and recycle the products like plastic, paper, glass and metal.

Question 6. List five things you have done over the last one week to:
(a) Conserve our natural resources.
(b) Increase the pressure on our natural resources.
(a) To conserve our natural resources: I preferred walking to the nearby places or cycling instead of going by a car. Switched off lights when not required. Minimised the use of water and checked the extra flow of water.

(b) Increase the pressure on our natural resources: I used air conditioner. Shopped for new clothes.

Question 7. On the basis of the issues raised in this chapter, what changes would you incorporate in your life style in a move towards a sustainable use of our resources?
To save various resources. I would follow 5R’s refuse, reduce, repurpose reuse and recycle. Minimize the use of coal and petroleum, switch over to CNG and use electrical equipments at the minimum. Do not waste paper and water. I will not buy goods made by killing animals like fur, leather, tusk, etc.

Gujarat Board Class 10 Science Management of Natural Resources Additional Important Questions and Answers

Very Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1. What is a natural resource?
All the material we obtain from nature and use it is called natural resource.

Question 2. Name two important natural resources.
Forest, Water, Wildlife.

Question 3. What are 5 R’s used to save environment?
Refuse, Reduce, Reuse, Repurpose and Recycle.

Question 4. Define biodiversity.
The number of species found in an area is called biodiversity.

Question 5. Name the bacteria whose presence in the water indicates its contamination with disease – causing microbes.
Coliform bacteria.

Question 6. Why fossil fuels should be used judiciously?
It is because these resources are limited, non-renewable and polluting.

Question 7. State 2 advantages of constructing dam across a river.
It helps in generating electricity in irrigation.

Question 8. Name the place where “Chipko Andolan” organised.
Reni Village in Garhwal.

Question 9. Who started the “Chipko Movement”?
Sunderlal Bahuguna.

Question 10. Name the main constituents of coal and petroleum.
Carbon, nitrogen, hydrogen, sulphur.

Question 11. Name the gases responsible for global warming.
Carbon dioxide and methane.

Question 12. State two disadvantages of constructing dam.
It can cause earthquakes, loss of habitat, submerging of plants releases methane gas that causes greenhouse effect.

Question 13. Name any one example of stakeholder of forests.
Bishnoi community in Rajasthan.

Question 14. Name two dam projects which are facing criticism.
Tehri dam on river Ganga and Sardar Sarovar dam on river Narmada.

Question 15. What are the products formed when coal and petroleum are burnt?
Carbon dioxide, water, oxides of nitrogen and oxides of sulphur.

Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1. Why do we need to use our resources carefully?
It is because these resources are limited and the human population is increasing at very fast rate, the demand for these resources is increasing. For long term usage and to preserve them we need to use our resources carefully.

Question 2. How does mining cause pollution?
Mining causes pollution because it produces large amount of slag which is discarded for every tonne of metal that is extracted.

Question 3. Why are forests called as biodiversity hot spots?
Biodiversity hot-spot means a place where large number of species are found. The range of different life forms i.e., bacteria, fungi, ferns, flowering plants, variety of animals likes, insects, birds, reptiles, aves, mammals etc are all found in the forest.

Question 4. For the conservation of forest, who can be a stakeholder?

  1. The people who live in or around forest.
  2. The forest department of the government.
  3. The industrialists.
  4. The wildlife and nature enthusiasts who want to conserve nature.

Question 5. Prejudice against the traditional use of forest areas has no basis. Comment.
It can be explained with one example. The great Himalayan Park contain alpine meadows which were grazed by sheep in summer. Nomadic shepherds drove their flock up from the valley every summer. When the National Park was formed this practice was banned. Because of no grazing, the grass first grew very tall and then fell over on the ground preventing fresh growth. Hence the traditional use was helpful for the forest maintenance.

Question 6. Name two industries based on forest produce.
Paper industries, bamboo, bidi and tendu leaves industries.

Question 7. Why is it necessary to conserve forest and wildlife?
To maintain balance in the eco-system, prevent floods, droughts.

Question 8. What is rainwater water harvesting? What is the main purpose of water harvesting?
Rain water harvesting is collecting the rain water, allowing it to percolate, discharge down the earth and increase the ground water level. It is done to manage water resources.

Question 9. Name the products of combustion of coal and petroleum. How do they affect our environment?
CO2, H2O, oxides of sulphur and nitrogen are released from the combustion of coal and petroleum.

Effect on environment:

  • CO2 – Greenhouse effect, global warming.
  • Oxides of sulphur and nitrogen causes acid rain.

Question 10. A tribe is living near the forest. Name two things which they will commonly use from forest.
Tribe will use timber, firewood, fruits, gum, medicines from the forest.

Question 11. Give an example of people’s participation in the management of forests.
Saving of sal forest of Arabari in Midnapore District. Chipko Movement to protect the trees from cutting down in Reni village of Garhwal.

Question 12. Write two advantages of classifying sources as renewable and non-renewable.
Classification of resources helps us in deciding the kind of resource we should use judiciously and wisely. The resource that is not limited should be used judiciously. It also helps us to know the importance of using renewable source of energy.

Question 13. Which is better recycle or reuse? Give example.
Reuse is better because recycling needs extra energy. Example the glass containers in which we get jam, pickles etc., can be reused at home to keep kitchen stuff but if it goes for recycling then lot of energy and money is spent on recycling it and getting a new bottle.

Question 14. Give three changes you will make to stop or lower the use of coal and petroleum.

  1. Switch off lights when not required, and use CFL bulbs.
  2. Not to use petrol fuel vehicles instead opt for CNG.
  3. Use cycle or walk to go short distances.

Question 15. What are the advantages of water stored in ground?

  1. Does not evaporate.
  2. Recharges wells.
  3. No danger of mosquito breeding.
  4. Better availability of potable water.

Question 16. Inspite of plenty rainfall in monsoon in some areas of India, there is failure to sustain water availability. Give reasons.

  1. Loss of forest cover prevents rainwater from seeping down the ground.
  2. Underground water is not recharged.

Question 17. What are three basic cause that has brought criticisms about large dams projects?

  1. Social problem – as its construction displaces large number of tribals and local peasants without proper compensation and rehabilitation.
  2. Economic problem – such projects need lot of money for the setup or construction without much of output or benefit.
  3. Environmental problem – the construction causes deforestration and loss of biological diversity.

Question 18. The constant exploitation of the natural resources had led to several consequences for the common man and nature to face. With the help of examples list down few these consequences.
There are many consequences of exploitation of natural resources. Some examples are given below:

  1. Excess exploitation of groundwater has led to a drastic fall in water table. This is the reason many places are experiencing acute shortage of drinking water.
  2. Burning of fossil fuels creates air pollution. Excess amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere leads to global warming.
  3. Some polluting gases; like oxides of nitrogen and sulphur leads to acid rain, which is harmful for living beings, monuments and buildings.
  4. Overuse of fertilizers and insecticides leads to soil pollution and soil erosion. The chemicals also interfere in the food chain.
  5. Many pollutants are direcdy flow into water bodies. This has resulted in water pollution in many rivers, lakes and even in oceans. Many creatures on land, air, and water are killed due to this kind of pollution.

Question 19. The stakeholders play a very vital role in sustaining the resources. With the help of one example justify the statement.
In Arabari, in West Bengal, the people participated in the forest management to sustain it for future. While reviving the degraded sal forests of Arabari forest range, the earlier methods of policing and surveillance were a total failure as they often led to frequent clashes with local people. It also led to alienation of people from the conservation programme.

Then came a forest officer; named A K Banerjee; who was a real visionary. He involved the local people in the revival of 1,272 hectares of forest. In lieu of that the villagers were given employment in silviculture and harvest and were given 25% of the harvest. They were also allowed to gather firewood and fodder against a nominal payment. Due to active participation of the local community there was remarkable revival of the Arabari sal forest. By 1983, the value of the forest rose to Rs. 12.5 crores. .

Question 20. Suggest few alternative ways to conserve our natural resources.
1. Solar energy is being used to produce electricity at many places. Although the technologies for solar energy are still costly but future prospects look bright.

2. Battery driven automobiles is another development which may help in replacing the internal combustion engines from automobiles.

3. Hydrogen is being used as fuel in buses and cars in many countries. Hydrogen; when used as a fuel produces water as a byproduct. Thus, hydrogen can be an environment-friendly fuel.

Question 21. What is Namami Gange Programme? What are the objectives of this programme?
Namami Gange Programme is an integrated conservation mission approved as flagship programme by the union government in June, 2014. It was started to achieve the twin objecties of effective abatement of pollution, conservation and rejurenation of the National River Ganga. It is the national mission implementation wing for the clean Ganga which was established in October, 2016.

Question 22. Give three main uses of fossil fuels.

  1. Fossil fuels are used for generating electricity i.e., coal is used in thermal power plants on large scale to produce electricity.
  2. Coal and petroleum is also used in industries to prepare goods from raw-materials.
  3. Petroleum is used for transportation. In vehicles petrol or diesel is used.

Long Answer Type Questions

Question 1. What are fossil fuels? How are they formed? Why should we use them judiciously?
Fossil fuels are obtained from the remains of plants and animals which got hurried under the earth some millions of year ago. They changed into fuel due to tremendous heat and pressure. The fossil fuels should be used judiciously because they are non-renewable resources, and can not be made again. It releases harmful and polluting gases like CO2, which causes green house effect and oxides of nitrogen and sulphur which causes acid rain.

Question 2. What is sustainable development? Explain it with respect to forest, wildlife and water resources.
The proper management of natural resources using it wisely and judiciously so that it is available for the coming generations also. All these resources are maintained. The population is increasing, demand for these resources is also increasing but they are limited in nature. The proper management would prevent the exploitation of these resources and keep them available for future generations.

Forest – Many industries like timber, wood, bidi, tendu leaves etc are dependent on the trees in the forest. They keep cutting the trees for use. This need to be managed properly and checked that new plantation of trees take place, animals are not harmed and are preserved.

Wildlife – All animals in the forest are disturbed due to the intervention of people into the forest. They are also killed for trade of skin, fur, tusk horn etc. If the animals in the forest are not managed and taken care of them they will be extinct which will disturb the ecological balance of the earth.

Water Resources – The main water resources are rivers, lake, ponds, underground water. The sources of water are getting polluted and the underground water is also discharged, used and the level of water is declining. Hence the recharge of water under the ground by rain water harvesting is necessary.

Question 3. What is rain water harvesting? How can it be done at local level? What are its benefits?
Rain water harvesting is the indigenous water saving methods to capture every trickle of water that had fallen on land. For this we need to dig small pits and lakes, build small earthen dams, construct dykes, and and lime stone reservoirs, set up roof top water collecting units. This will recharge ground water levels and bring rivers back to life.

Water harvesting techniques give people control over their local water resources, ensures, that the mismanagement and over exploitation of these resources is reduced/removed. The advantage of water stored in the ground are many. It does not evaporate, but spreads out to recharge wells and provide moisture for vegetation over a wide area. It does not provide breeding area for mosquitoes. It is also protected from contamination by human and animal waste.

Question 4. Dams are constructed on the river for multipurpose use. Give its advantages and disadvantages.
Advantages of dams:
(i) The water stored in the dams is used for irrigation by constructing canals which carry water to the fields. The Indira Gandhi Canal carries water from Bhakra dam, Punjab to villages in Rajasthan desert where it has brought greenery and added life to the soil.

(ii) The water in dams is continuously available for the people in the vicinity to make use of it after purification.

(iii) The water of dam is also used in producing electricity. The water in dam that falls from a certain height gains kinetic energy and rotates turbines to generate electricity. Hence this way it makes hydroelectricity.

Disadvantages of dams:
(i) Social Problems: Due to dam’s construction large number of human settlements are submerged in water, many people become homeless. Government must provide adequate compensation for the rehabilitation of these people which is not being done.

(ii) Ecological problems: Lot of deforestration takes place for the construction of dams, which leads to loss of biodiversity. Many plants get submerged underwater and on decomposition this releases methane gas; that is the greenhouse gas; causing global warming.

(iii) Economic problems: For the construction of dams large funds are required, Government invests lot of money in its construction and the benefits or the output is not equivalent.

Question 5. Explain 5R’s with one example each.
By following 5 R’s –
(a) Refuse -Refuse to purchase or accept those products which can be harmful to the environment e.g. plastic bags.

(b) Reduce – Reduce or minimise the use of resources, by saving electricity by switching off unnecessary lights and fans etc. and by walking whenever possible.

(c) Reuse – It is better than recycle. Instead of throwing used envelopes, we can reverse it and use it again. The plastic and glass containers, botdes can be reused.

(d) Repurpose – When an object cannot be used for the purpose for which it is made then use it for some other useful purpose e.g. growing plants in broken china clay utensils.

(e) Recycle – Collect and recycle the products like plastic, paper, glass and metal.

Gujarat Board Class 10 Science Management of Natural Resources InText Questions and Answers

Question 1. What changes can you make in your habits to become more environment-friendly?

  1. Do not throw garbage on the road side.
  2. Switch off lights, fans, TV when not required.
  3. Use less water for bathing, washing jobs.
  4. Use jute bags instead of polyethene.
  5. Walk or cycle to cover short distances instead of using vehicles causes pollution.

Question 2. What would be the disadvantages of exploiting resources with short-term aims?
Exploitation of resources with short-term aims means misuse of the resource and harm to the earth for need and money.

Question 3. How would these advantages differ from the advantages of using a long-term perspective in managing our resources?
In long-term perspective we are managing the resources in such a way that we are accountable for its misuse. We use it wisely and let the future generation also get its benefit. Pollution is controlled and minimised.

Question 4. Why do you think there should be equitable distribution of resources? What forces would be working against an equitable distribution of our resources?
Equitable distribution of resources will help the resources reach every individual in cheaper and easier way. The people who need to obtain only money out of these resources would work against it.

Question 5. Why should we conserve forests and wildlife?
Conservation of forest is important as forest is useful to us in many ways:

  1. Provides raw material for timber industry.
  2. Prevents soil erosion and flood.
  3. Provides medicines, herbs, gum, resin.
  4. Provides habitat to many animals.
  5. Maintain water-cycle by bringing rainfall.

Wildlife conservation is important because:

  1. It maintains ecological balance in nature.
  2. It also maintains the forests by facilitating growth of plants in different places by dispersing seeds.
  3. By grazing grass it also maintains the soil fertility.
  4. It also helps in cleaning of forest.

Question 6. Suggest some approaches towards the conservation of forests.
For conservation of forests:

  1. It should be checked that illegal cutting of trees is banned and made a punishable act.
  2. Stakeholders should take care of the maintenance of the forest.
  3. Forest fires should be checked and controlled.
  4. Nearby villages or people should be trained and educated to manage forests.

Question 7. Find out about the traditional systems of water harvesting/management in your region.
The traditional systems of water harvesting management:

  1. Bandharas and tals in Maharashtra
  2. Bundhis in Madhya Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh
  3. Kulhs in Himachal Pradesh
  4. Khadins, tanks and nadis in Rajasthan.
  5. Ahars and pynes in Bihar.

Question 8. Compare the above system with the probable systems in hilly/mountainous areas or plains or plateau regions.
Water harvesting system in hilly and mountainous areas is different from plains and from plateau region.
For example: in hilly areas like Himachal Pradesh a local system of irrigation was developed called kulhs. The water flowing in the streams was diverted into man-made channels which took this water to numerous villages down the hillside. Whereas water in plains is collected in check dams or tanks, tals or bundhis.

Question 9. Find out the source of water in your region/locality. Is water from this source available to all people living in that area?
The source of water in our region is municipality supply of water and from under ground i.e. ground water. There is scarcity of water during summer season and most people don’t have access to water.

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