JKBOSE 10th Class Science Solutions Chapter 16 Management of Natural Resources

JKBOSE 10th Class Science Solutions Chapter 16 Management of Natural Resources

JKBOSE 10th Class Science Solutions Chapter 16 Management of Natural Resources

Jammu & Kashmir State Board JKBOSE 10th Class Science Solutions

J&K class 10th Science Management of Natural Resources Textbook Questions and Answers


❖ Our natural resources like forests, wild life, water, coal and petroleum need to be used in a sustainable manner.
❖ The variety of substances which man gets from earth and nature to meet his basic needs are called natural resources.
❖ People’s participation is very important in maintaining eco-environment.
❖ Multicrore project “Ganga Action Plan” to clean and maintain proper quality of water in the Ganga was launched in 1985.
❖ We can reduce pressure on the environment by applying the maximum of three R’s (Reduce, Reuse and Recycle) in our lives.
Steps to reduce
  1. When buying something we find out the affect of the product and its packaging on the environment. As far as possible we should choose products that will not harm the environment.
  2. If the same product is available in the same quantity in different packets we should choose the one in the smallest packet.
  3. If possible we buy provisions for home in quantities instead of small measures.
  4. We should switch off unnecessary lights and fans to save electricity.
  5. We should save water by repairing leaky taps.
  6. We should not waste food.
Steps to reuse
  1. Buy things that can be reused, like pens with refills or pens that use ink.
  2. Use the same plastic bag many times.
  3. Use the blank side of paper that has already been written or printed on for rough work.
  4. Use empty bottle and boxes to store things.
  • Recycling. The transformation of old used material (metal, plastic, newspaper etc.) into new product is called recycling.
Steps to recycle the matter
  1. Buy things whose packaging can be recycled.
  2. Use that things have been made by recycling, such as recycled paper.
  3. Use things that are made of substances that can be recycled.
❖ The concept of sustainable development encourages forms of growth that meet our current basic human needs it will lead to socio-economic growth.
❖ Plant species are termed as flora whereas animal species as fauna. They are the living natural resources.
❖ Forests are important renewable natural resources.
Uses of forests
The uses of forests are mentioned below :
  1. Forests check floods and prevent soil erosion and maintain the fertility of soil,
  2. Forests provide food and cover for wildlife.
  3. Forests provide timber for building and furniture.
  4. Forests yield valuable products such as wood pulp (raw material for making paper), lurpentius, latex (for the manufacture of rubber), resins, gum, lac etc.,
  5. Forests regulate the earth’s temperature and water cycle,
  6. Forests help in balancing the CO₂ and O₂ of the atmosphere,
  7. Forests protect from adverse effect of solar radiation,
  8. Forests increase moisture in the air and cool the air,
  9. Forests provide fruits, nuts and medicines.
Stakeholders of the forests
Following are the stakeholders of the forests :
  1. The people who live in or around forests are dependent on forest produce for various aspects of their life.
  2. The Forest Department of the Government which owns the land and controls the resources from forests.
  3. The industrialists-from those who use ‘tendu’ leaves to make bidis to the ones with paper mills-who use various forest produce, but are not dependent on the forests in any one area.
❖ All the naturally occuring animals, plants and their species which are not domesticated or cultivated constitute wildlife.
❖ The management of natural resources require a long term perspective so that they last for generations to come and not to be exploited for short term gains.
❖ Management of forests and wild life resources has to take into account the interests of various stakeholders.
❖ Useful plantation of plants for local people-leaves for fodder, herbs for medicines, fruits and nuts for food. Such plantations are useful for industries.
❖ Government of India has instituted “Amrita Devi Bishnoi Award for wild life conservation” in the memory of Amrita Devi who in 1731 sacrificed her life along with 363 other for the protection of ‘Khejri trees’.
❖ ‘Chipko Andolan’ was the result of a grass root level effort to end the alienation of people from their forests.
❖ Sal forests in the Arabari forests of Midnapur district were saved by the people involvement.
❖ Water is basic necessity for all terrestrial forms al forms of life.
❖ Water for all. Water is most important component of life. Some parts of our country have good resources of water, whereas other parts suffer from chronic water shortage. The regions having good availability of water are flourishing because they have good crops, but the regions having shortage of water are facing many troubles because of poor crop growth. It is, therefore, necessary to have proper management of available water resources, so that there is an equal distribution of water for all the people in all the parts of the country. The sources of water which are available to us are rains, rivers, lakes, ponds, wells, oceans etc.
Management of water resources. It includes:
  1. Integrated water shed plan for drinking, irrigation and industrial use.
  2. Control of flood.
  3. Devising ways to transfer of surplus water to water deficit basins by inter-linking of rivers.
  4. Hydro geological surveys to identify over exploited areas.
  5. Artificial recharging of ground water.
  6. Mass awareness programmes through public or private agencies.
❖ DAMS. They are the large water storing reservoirs, usually, built by the government agencies across the rivers to regulate the flow of water for human purposes and to generate electric power.
Purposes (Advantages) for building a dam
  1. Water from a dam is used for irrigation in fields through a network of canals. For example, Indira Gandhi canal originating from Bhakra dam has brought greenery to considerable areas in Rajasthan.
  2. Water from a dam is supplied to the people in towns and cities through pipelines after suitable treatment. So, dams ensure continuous water supply in the region.
  3. The falling water from the dam is used for generating electricity called hydroelectricity.
❖ Water management emphasises scientific soil and water conservation in order to increase the biomass production.
Steps to reduce pollution of Ganga river
To reduce the pollution of Ganga water we must follow the points :
  1. Waste products should be treated before they are released into the river.
  2. The statues should not be thrown in the rivers.
  3. People should not defacecate near the river.
  4. Animals and clothes should not be washed in river.
  5. Dead bodies should not be dumped into river.
  6. Household garbage should not be thrown into river.
❖ Water harvesting is an old age concept of India.
❖ Fossil fuel, coal and petroleum are important sources of energy for us.
❖ To meet the demand of energy we must look towards other sources such as solar energy.
❖ Moreover the reduction in the use of fossil fuels will lead to decrease in pollution.


⇒ Pollution. Presence of unwanted, unnecessary and undesirable changes in biological, physical and chemical characteristics of environment is termed as pollution. Mainly pollution is of three types-soil pollution, air pollution, water pollution.
⇒ 3-R. Reduce, Recycle, Reuse.
⇒ Recycle. Using products made of plastic, paper, glass, metal etc. in making new products instead of new material is called recycle.
⇒ Reuse. It is a simple strategy to use things again and again instead of throwing away.
⇒ Water Harvesting. It is a process of capturing used or rain water in a nearby area to utilise it for our use again and increase the level of underground water.
⇒ Biodiversity. Different types of living beings exist in this world. A very large variety of plants and animals are parts of it. Out of these some are of economic importance. Their structures and usefulness vary. The existence of wide variety of species living in a particular natural habitat or community is termed as biodiversity.
⇒ Conservation. It is a process to prevent our environment from degradation and to work for its betterment by improving the conditions to stop further deterioration.
⇒ Underground water. Water present under the surface of soil.
⇒ Ganga Action Plan. A multicrore project proposed by Govt. of India in 1985 to clean river Ganga of its pollutants.
⇒ Coliform Bacteria. Coliform is a group of gram-negative bacteria that causes many diseases in human intestines. Its presence in water indicates contamination of diseasecausing micro-organisms.
⇒ Wild life. All types of naturally occurring plants and animals and their species found in nature are termed as wild life. It is neither cultivated nor tamed/domesticated. Ecological Conservation.
⇒ Ecological Conservation’ is a term used to conserve nature and natural resources to maintain ecological balance.
⇒ Water Resources. The resources like rivers, canals, oceans, rains etc. are called water resources which provide water for our use.
⇒ Water Shed Management. It is the scientific conservation of soil and water to get better and increased biomass production.
⇒ Water Harvesting. Water harvesting is to capture and save rain water to make use of it for better purposes.
⇒ National Park. A very large specified area reserved and dedicated by government to conserve natural resources, forests, wild life where human activities are completely banned is called National Park.


Q. 1. What changes can you make in your habits to become more environment friendly? 
Ans. Changes in habits to become environment friendly
1. Check your careless habit of wasting. Save water by repairing leaking taps.
2. Switch off unnecessary lights and fans.
3. Do not waste food.
4. Say ‘No’ to plastic bags, disposable plastic cups and other forms of plastic crockery.
5. Reuse the things again and again. Instead of throwing away envelopes, you can reverse it and use it again.
Q. 2. What would be the advantages of exploring resources with short term aims ?
Ans. The advantages of exploiting resources with short term aims are as follows:
1. We will be able to fulfil the requirement of mass population.
2. We will be able to get industrial growth and hence economic development is linked to environmental conservation.
Q. 3. How would these advantages differ from the advantages of using a long term perspective in managing our resources ?
Ans. The demand for all resources is increasing due to increasing human population. The resources are limited.
1. It should ensure selective careful use so as to maintain.
2. There should be equal distribution of resources to all i.e. rich and poor.
3. There should be safe disposal of wastes.
Q. 4. Why do you think there should be equitable distribution of resources ? What damin forces would be working against the equitable distribution of our resources.
Ans. Management of resources should ensure equitable distribution of resources to all and not to just a handful of rich and powerful people, benefit from the development of these resources.
Q. 5. Why should we conserve forest and wild life?
Why do we need to manage our resources ?
Ans. Forests and wild life are resources of great value.
1. Forests help in protection of land.
2. Forests help in retaining sub-soil water.
3. Forests check floods.
4. Forest and wild life maintain ecosystem.
5. They should be maintained for our economic and social growth and to meet our and of future generation’s material aspiration.
Q. 6. Suggest some approaches towards conservation of forests. 
Ans. Conservation of forests
1. Participation of local people indeed lead to efficient management of forest as exemplified by strategy developed in Arabari Forest range of Midnapur district.
2. Replantation of trees.
3. Selective use of forests.
4. Scientific research, monitoring and education plays vital role in conservation.
Q. 7. Find out about the traditional system of water harvesting/management of your region. 
Ans. Traditional Methods in water harvesting/management
1. Diversion of water flowing in streams into man-made channels to cater to the demand of villagers.
2. Collection of water in ponds.
3. Construction of dams.
Q. 8. Compare the above system with the probable system in hilly mountainous areas or plains or plateau regions.
Ans. Water harvesting system are highly local specific and benefits are also localised. Present day system include mega projects such as dams.
Q. 9. Find out the source of water in your region/locality. Is water from this source available to all people?
Ans. Sources of water are different in different areas. However these sources are available to all people.


Q. 1. What changes would you suggest in your home in order to be environment friendly? 
Ans. We should use the formula of three R’s to save the environment i.e. Reduce, Recycle and Reuse. not waste
1. Reduce. Use less, save water and electricity by stopping the wastage. Do food.
2. Recycle. Segregate the wastes so that material which can be recycled should be dumped in place for recycling.
3. Reuse. Reuse certain articles e.g. reverse the used envelope and reuse it.
Q. 2. Can you suggest some changes in your school which could make it environment friendly.
Ans. Same as in Q. No. 1 (TBE)
Q. 3. We have read in this chapter that there are four main stakeholders when it comes to forests and wild-life. Which among these should have the authority to decide the management of forest produce? Why do you think so ?
Ans. By active and willing participation of local people, the sal forests of Arabari under went a remarkable recovery as 25 per cent of final harvest was provided to people. They were allowed fuel wood and fodder collection at very nominal rates. This project helped in saving the forests. Hence to have sustainable development there should be equal participation of local community.
Q. 4. How can you as an individual contribute or make a difference to the management of (a) forest and wild-life (b) water resources and (c) Coal and Petroleum ?
Ans. (a) Selective use and reuse of resources.
(b) Water harvesting at one’s home level so as to restore water at subsoil level.
(c) Alternative sources of energy such as use of solar energy instead of coal and petroleum.
Q. 5. What can you, as individual, do to reduce your consumption of the various natural resources ?
Ans. Same as in Q. No. 4 (TBE)
Q. 6. List five things you have done over the last one week to
(i) conserve our natural resources
(ii) increase the pressure on our natural resources.
Ans. Conserve our natural resources
1. Saved electricity by switching off electricity of unnecessary light and fans.
2. Used disposable paper cups and plates during my journey in the train.
3. Reused the envelopes by turning inside out.
4. Planted five plants in my school.
5. Educated the people in my locality regarding conservation of natural resources for sustainable development.
Pressure on natural resources
1. Wasted food.
2. Used scooter to consume petrol.
3. Added to air pollution and sound pollution.
4. Used plastic bags.
5. Used D.D.T. in my home.
Q. 7. On the basis of issues raised in this chapter, what changes would you incorporate in your life-style in a move towards a sustainable use of our resources ?
Ans. Refer to Q. No. 4 and 6 (i) T.B.E.



Q. 1. Explain the three R’s to serve the environment.
Why is it better to ‘reuse’ the things ?
What do you understand by reuse of material ? Give example.
How can you help in reducing the problem of waste disposal ? 
Ans. The three R’s to save the environment : Reduce, Recycle and Reuse. What do they refer to ?
Reduce. This means that use less. Save electricity by switching off unnecessary lights and fans. Save water by repairing leaky taps. Do not waste food.
Recycle. This means that collection of plastic, paper, glass and metal items and recycle this material to make required things instead of synthesising or extracting fresh plastic, paper, glass or metal. In order of recycle, first need to segregate waste so that the material that can be recycled is not dumped along with other waste.
Reuse. This is actually even better than recycling because the process of recycling uses some energy. In the ‘reuse’ strategy, simply use things again and again. Instead of throwing away used envelopes, you can reverse it and use it again. The plastic bottles in which you buy various food-items like jam or pickle can be used for storing things in the kitchen.
Q. 2. What is biodiversity? Why has it become important recently?
Ans. Biodiversity. (Gk-bios = life; diversity = form). It is occurrence of different kinds of organisms and the complete range of varieties adapted to different climates, environments and areas being constituents of food chains and food web of biotic interrelationship. Biodiversity refers to totality of genes, species and ecosystems of a region. Biodiversity differs from place to place.
As there is continuous loss of biodiversity due to increasing population, resources consumption, urbanization and pollution, it is important to conserve it. The basic reason for concern is that biodiversity is being lost even before it attains its size. Loss of biodiversity would check evolutionary capability of biota to cope up with environmental loss.
Q. 3. What is the importance of forest resources ?
Ans. A. Productive functions
1. Forests provide wood. Indian forests yield valuable timber wood like teak, sal, deodar, shisham etc.
2. Forests provide paper. The conifers and bamboos a bamboos are used as raw material to prepare paper.
3. Medicinal plants of forests provide medicine of great importance.
4. Forests provide number of products like resins, gums, rubber, food od and incent. insecticides.
5. Forests provide shelter to variety of animals.
6. Forests also provide the cork e.g. oak (Quercus).
B. Protective functions
Role of forests in the protection of lands. Forests play a vital role in the life and economy of all tribes living in the forests.
1. Forests prevent erosion of soil by wind and water.
2. Large trees provide shade which prevents the soil from becoming dry and friable during the summer.
3. They check the velocity of rain drops or wind striking the ground and reduce dislodging of the soil particles.
4. The root system of plants firmly binds the soil.
Q. 4. What are the methods of conserving water resources ?
Write two methods of conserving water resources.
Ans. Conservation of water resources
For conservation and management of fresh water following methods can be employed:
1. Reducing agricultural water wastage by increasing efficiency of irrigation system.
2. Afforestation and protection of watersheds to improve economy.
3. Formation of artificial clouds, so that a change can be brought in the atmosphere.
4. Changes in the vegetation of a particular area, so that even in the dry season maximum amount of water can be stored. In addition to this, dams should be constructed to stop the drainage of rain water.
5. Control the distribution of water by constructing big dams.
6. Desalinization of sea water and saline ground water.
7. Proper utilization of underground water.
8. Attempt to extract minerals from water.
9. Melt the glaciers and snow for using as a fresh water resource.
10. Regular dredging and destilation of water bodies..
Q. 5. Discuss various ways of water harvesting. 
Ans. Water harvesting can be undertaken through a variety of ways such as follows:
1. Capturing run off from roof tops.
2. Capturing run off form local catchments.
3. Capturing floodwaters from local streams.
4. Conserving water through watershed management.
Q. 6. How does development affect the environment?
Ans. Development affects the natural environment for socio-economic considerations. It leads to degradation of environment. Some of human activities have caused harm to the environment are stated below:
1. Urbanisation. Old villages, hills, beaches etc. have been converted into cities and big towns.
2. Industrialisation. To set up industries for development, agriculture land had been used.
3. Tourism. To increase tourism big hotels have been constructed on agricultural land or forest covered areas.
4. Communication. To increase communication for trade purposes a network of road and transport has been established.
5. Construction of big dams and mining have also caused degradation of natural environment.
Q. 7. How can you make a balance between environment and development ?
Ans. To maintain a balance between environment and development we must need to do the following:
1. It is essential to adopt sustainable development. It is also necessary to meet the needs of present generation without closing the options for future generation.
2. Human being should live in harmony with nature.
3. Green grassy patches should be developed between concrete buildings.
4. Technologies which are environmentally sound and based on maximising recycling and efficient use of resources should be adopted.
Q. 8. With the help of simple diagram show the setting up of Khadin system of water harvesting.
Ans. Khadin system of water harvesting.
Q. 9. Why use of coal and petroleum should be restricted ?
Ans. Necessity of Judicious Use of Coal and Petroleum. The fossil fuels, coal and petroleum get exhausted and their combustion pollutes our environment, so a judicious use of these resources is necessary.
1. Since coal and petroleum have been formed from biomass, in addition to carbon, these contain hydrogen, nitrogen and sulphur.
2. When these are burnt, the products formed are carbon dioxide, water, oxides of nitrogen and oxides of sulphur. When combustion takes place in insufficient air (oxygen), then carbon monoxide is formed instead of carbon dioxide.
3. Of these products, the oxides of sulphur and nitrogen and carbon monoxide are poisonous at high concentrations and carbon dioxide is a greenhouse gas which leads to global warming.
4. Another way of looking at coal and petroleum is that they are huge reservoirs of carbon and if all of this carbon is converted to carbon dioxide, then the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is going to increase leading to intense global warmings. Thus, we need to use these resources judiciously.
Q. 10. Explain any four measure for conservation of wild life.
Ans. Some of the steps involved in the conservation of wild life are :
1. The wild life should be protected in natural habitats (In-situ conservation) as well as in places under human control such as zoological and botanical gardens, genetic resource centres, culture collection (Ex-situ conservation).
2. The threatened species should be given preference over others in the conservation programme. Among these, the endangered species should get priority over the vulnerable species, and the latter over the rare species.
3. The habitats of wild relatives of useful plants and animals should be preserved in protected areas.
4. The critical habitats of wild animals should be kept intact.


Q. 1. What do you mean by natural resources ? List its two main categories.
Ans. Natural resources are components of biosphere and include energy, air, land, water, minerals, plants, animals and micro-organisms.
The natural resources are categorised into two main groups i.e. renewable and nonrenewable.
Q. 2. Why do we need to manage our resources ?
Why should we reduce the use of natural resources ?
Ans. Need to manage our resources :
1. These resources are not unlimited and with the human population increasing at a tremendous rate due to improvement in health-care, the demand for all resources is increasing at an exponential rate.
2. The management of natural resources requires a long-term perspective so that these will last for the generations to come and will not merely be exploited to the hilt for short term gains.
3. This management should also ensure equitable distribution of resources so that all people benefit form these resource.
4. Preservation of bio-diversity.
5. Damage to these resources cause pollution.
Q. 3. Why is dependence of man on nature greater than that of any other organism ?
Ans. Man’s dependence on the environment is greater than that of other organisms because he :
1. has developed curiosity for more comforts and security.
2. consumes large amount of material and energy.
3. has developed a new kind of socio-economic environment which consists of things developed by man through his tools and techniques.
Q. 4. What do you mean by coliform bacteria ?
Ans. Coliform is a group of gram-negative rod-shaped bacteria that are found in human intestine. Their presence in water is an indicator of contamination by disease-causing microorganisms causing faecal pollution.
Examples: It includes Escherichia coli and Salmonella.
Q. 5. Write in brief about the natural resources management. 
Ans. 1. These resources are not unlimited and with the human population increasing at a tremendous rate due to improvement in health-care, the demand for all resources is increasing at an exponential rate.
2. The management of natural resources requires a long-term perspective so that these will last for the generations to come and will not merely be exploited to the hilt for short term gains.
3. This management should also ensure equitable distribution of resources so that all people benefit from these resource.
4. Preservation of bio-diversity.
5. Damage to these resources cause pollution.
Q. 6. Give a graphic representation of total coliform count level in the Ganga in different town.
Ans. Coliform count level in Ganga Water
Q. 7. What are causes of pollution of Ganga ?
Ans. Pollution of Ganga.
The Ganga runs its course of over 2500 km from Gangotri in the Himalayas to Ganga Sagar in the Bay of Bengal.
1. It is being turned into a drain by more than a hundred towns and cities in Uttar Pradesh, Bihar and West Bengal that pour their garbage and excreta into it. Largely untreated sewage is dumped into the Ganges everyday.
2. Pollution caused by other human activities like bathing, washing of clothes and immersion of ashes or unburnt corpses.
3. Industries contribute chemical effluents to the Ganga’s pollution load and the toxicity kills fish in large sections of the river.
Ganga Action Plan was launched in 1985 to improve the quality of water.
Q. 8. What is the purpose of sustainable development ?
Ans. Sustainable development
The concept of sustainable development encourages forms of growth that meet current basic human needs, while preserving the resources for the needs of future generations. Economic development is linked to environmental conservation. Thus sustainable development implies a change in all aspects of life. It depends upon the willingness of the people to change their perceptions of the socio-economic and environmental conditions around them and the readiness of each individual to alter their present use of natural resources.
Q.9. Suggest three ways to maintain a balance between environment and development.
Ans. Ways to maintain a balance between environment and development to survive are :
(i) Forest resources are to be used in such a manner that is both environmentally and developmentally sound.
(ii) By adopting environment friendly technologies and by minimising pollution of natural resources.
(iii) By adopting three R’s (Reduce, Reuse and Recycle) which will prevent the early exhaustion of natural resources and at same time help in sustainable development.
Q. 10. List three points only for management of natural resources. 
Ans. 1. Long term perspective to make them available for future generations.
2. Equal distribution among rich and poor.
3. To check pollution to save the environment.
Q. 11. What is the purpose of sustainable agriculture ? 
to save the environment. Need of sustainable agriculture :
(i) Conservation of natural resources.
(ii) Protection of environment.
(iii) To ensure adequate and balanced diet to eat.
(iv) Clean water to drink.
(v) Pure air to breathe.
Q. 12. Write a note on forest conservation. 
Ans. Forest conservation. Before man’s evolution 70% of the land was covered by forests, which is now only 16%. The forests were depleted due to river valley projects, commercial use, a agriculture development etc. To t etc. To stop the destruction of forests, forests management, social forestry and public efforts are also necessary.
Ways of Conservation of forests.
1. Participation of local people indeed lead to efficient management of forest by strategy developed in Arabari Forest range of Midnapur district.

2. Replantation of trees.
3. Selective use of forests.
Q. 13. What are consequences of depletion of forests ?
Ans. Consequences of the depletion of forests :
(i) Lesser rainfall.
(ii) Increased air pollution.
(iii) Increased soil erosion.
(iv) Danger of wildlife extinction.
Q. 14. Illustrate conservation of forests by people as religious tenet. 
Ans. Local people were working traditionally for conservation of forests. The case of the Bishnoi community in Rajasthan, for whom conservation of forest and wildlife has been a religious tenet. The Government of India had recently instituted an ‘Amrita Devi Bishnoi National Award for Wildlife Conservation’ in the memory of Amrita Devi Bishnoi, who in 1731 sacrificed her life along with 363 others for the protection of ‘Khejri’ trees in Khejrali village near Jodhpur in Rajasthan.
Q. 15. Write a note on Chipko Andolan. 
Ans. Chipko Andolan. This movement was launched by people of Reni in Garhwal. It was spearheaded by Sunder Lal Bahuguna. The Chipko Andolan (‘Hug the Trees Movement’) was the result of a grassroots level effort to end the alienation of people from their forests. The movement originated from an incident in a remote village called Reni in Garhwal, high up in the Himalayas during the early 1970’s. There was a dispute between the local villagers and a logging contractor who had been allowed to fell trees in a forest close to the village. On the specific day, the forest contractor’s workers appeared in the forest to cut the trees while the men folk were absent. Undeterred, the women of the village reached the forest quickly and clasped the tree trunks thus preventing the workers from felling the trees. Thus thwarted, the contractor to withdraw.
Q. 16. How did the ‘Chipko Andolan’ ultimately benefit the local population ? Give any two benefits.
Ans.Benefits of Chipko Andolan
1. Forests are essential for the protection of environment.
2. The leaders of Chipko Andolan believed in five F’s-Food, Fodder, Fuel, Fertilizers and Fibres provided by the forests.
Q. 17. Explain a system of canal irrigation carried out in parts of Himachal Pradesh.
Ans. Kulhs Canal Irrigation in Himachal Pradesh. Parts of Himachal Pradesh had evolved a local system of canal irrigation called kulhs over four hundred years ago. The water flowing in the streams was di diverted into a man-made channels which took this water to numerous villages down own the hillside. The management of the water f flowing in these kulhs was by common agreement between all the villages. Interestingly, during the planting season, water was first used by the village farthest away from the source of the kulh, then by villages progressively higher up. These kulhs were managed by two or three people who were paid by the villagers. In addition to irrigation, water from these kulhs also percolated into the soil and fed springs at various points. After the kulhs were taken over by the Irrigation Department, most of them became defunct and there is no amicable sharing of water as before.
Q. 18. What is water harvesting ?
Ans. Water harvesting. It is the management of water shed in a scientific way for conservation of soil water conservation to increase the biomass productions. Other advantage is to produce secondary resource for plants and animals for use so as to maintain ecological balance. Another advantage of water harvesting is to overcome the floods, drought and maintain regular supply of water to all parts.
Q. 19. List the benefits of water harvesting.
Ans.Benefits of water harvesting are as follows:
1. Provide drinking water around the year.
2. Provide irrigation water.
3. Protection and increase in ground water resources.
4. Reduces storm water discharge, urban flood and overloading of sewage treatment plants.
Q. 20. What are the ways of recharging the ground water level ?
Ans. 1. Construction of small earthen dam.
2. Construction of dykes, sand and limestone reservoir.
3. Setting up of roof top water collecting units.
Q. 21. Discuss the advantages of ground water.
Ans.Advantages of Ground Water are as follows:
1. It does not evaporate.
2. It spreads out to recharge wells.
3. It provides moisture for vegetation.
4. It does not provide breeding grounds for mosquitoes.
5. It is relatively protected from contamination by human and animal waste.
Q. 22. List the age old methods of water harvesting in India.
Ans.Water harvesting is an age-old concept in India.
S.No.  Ancient Water Harvesting Structure State/Region
1. Khadins, tanks and nadis Rajasthan
2. Bandharas and tals Maharashtra
3. Bundhis Madhya Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh
4. Ahars and pynes Bihar
5. Kulhs and ponds Himachal Pradesh and Kandi belt of Jammu region respectively
6. Eris (tanks) Tamil Nadu
7. Suragams Kerala
8. Kattas Karnataka
Q. 23. Write the advantages of giving control of water management of the residents of the area.
Ans. Water harvesting techniques are highly local specific and the benefits are also localised. Giving people control over their local water resources ensures that mismanagement and over exploitation of these resources is reduced/removed.
Q. 24. How was Coal and petroleum formed? Will they last forever?
Ans. Coal is a fossilised rock which contains mainly carbon and its compound. It also contains inorganic compounds. Coal and petroleum were formed from the degradation of biomass millions of years ago and hence these are resources that will be exhausted in the future no matter how carefully we use them. And then we would need to look for alternative sources of energy.
Uses of Coal and Petroleum
1. Coal is used in thermal power plants and in steam engines as a source of energy.
2. Petroleum products such as petrol, diesel are used as source of energy for transport such as motor vehicles.
3. Many petroleum products are used as raw material for obtaining many products.
Q. 25. Write a note on River Jhelum.
Ans. River Jhelum is pride of Jammu and Kashmir. This river rises from a spring situated at the foot of Pir Panjal in the South-Eastern part of valley of Kashmir. Thus, it originates from Chasma Verinag. It flows through Srinagar and the Wular lake before entering Pakistan from Kashmir through a deep narrow gauge. Due to increasing population, there is a gradual encroachment of river banks. The river is being polluted on large scale because of human activities. The agro-chemicals flow into river. The sewage of the city is also being discharged into the river Jhelum. It enhances the pollution and makes the water unusable. The animals specifically fishes are depleting in the river due to addition of agro-chemicals and sewage into river.
Q. 26. What is ‘Narmada Bachao Andolan’ ? 
Ans. ‘Narmada Bachao Andolan’. It is a social movement consisting of adivasis, farmers, environmentalists and human right activisits against the number of large dams built across the Narmada river which flows through the states of Maharashtra. Gujarat, Madaya Pradesh. Medha Patkar led the andolan. They are fighting for rehabilitation of the people.
Q. 27. What for Amrita Devi Bishnoi Award is given ?
Ans. The Government of India has instituted an Amrita Devi Bishnoi National Award for Wildlife Conservation in the memory of Amrita Devi Bishnoi, who in 1731 sacrificed her life along with 363 other for the protection of ‘Khejri’ trees in Khejarli village near Jodhpur in Rajasthan.
Q. 28. Suggest any two practices to protect our environment. 
Ans.Ways to protect environment
1. Reduce, Recycle and reuse the resources.
2. Conservation of water.
3. Planting of trees.


Q. 1. What do you mean by the term resource ?
Ans. Source of supply or support generally held in services is called resource.
Q. 2. What is natural resource ?
Ans. Any component of natural environment that can be utilized by man for his welfare is called natural resource.
Q. 3. List a few natural resources.
Ans. Land, soil, water, forest, grassland.
Q. 4. Name two natural resources which are like supporting systems.
Ans. Soil and water.
Q. 5. (a) When was Ganga Action Plan launched ?
(b) Why was Ganga Action plan launched ?
Ans. (a) 1985.
(b) To restore the quality of water in the Ganga because water was very poor due to pollution.
Q. 6. Name any two non-biodegradable pollutants.
Ans. 1. Plastics 2. Chemical pesticides.
Q. 7. What is the name of bacteria found in human intestine and also present in Ganges water?
Ans. Coliform bacteria.
Q. 8. What does the presence of coliform in water indicates ?
Ans. The presence of coliform in water indicates contamination by disease-causing micro organisms.
Q. 9. What is the course of Ganga ?
Ans. The Ganga runs its course of over 2500 km from Gangotri in the Himalayas to Ganga Sagar in the Bay of Bengal.
Q. 10. Which city had the maximum coliform count in Ganges water ?
Ans. Kannauj and Kanpur (Most Probable Number 1400/500 ml)
Q. 11. What are the three R’s to save the environment?
Ans. Reduce, Recycle and Reuse.
Q. 12. What is the purpose of sustainable development ?
Ans. The concept of sustainable development encourage forms of growth that meet current basic human needs, while preserving the resources for next generation.
Q. 13. What is the importance of forests?
Ans. Timber and other plant products.
Q. 14. Write just one importance of wildlife from ecological point.
Ans. Wildlife maintains food chain.
Q. 15. What is the only outside source of energy?
Ans. Sun.
Q. 16. Why do we need to use of our resources carefully ?
Ans. Resources are not unlimited and with the human population increasing geometrically.
Q. 17. Give one example of human activity which cause pollution.
Ans. Mining.
Q. 18. Why is is mining a big source of pollution ?
Ans. Mining causes pollution because of large amount of slag which is discarded for every tonne of metal extracted.
Q. 19. What is the basic requirement of local people living in forests ?
Ans. Firewood and fodder.
Q. 20. How much water is used for agricultural processes ?
Ans. 70%.
Q. 21. What is the effect of continuous depletion of ground water along coastal region ?
Ans. It leads to movement of saline sea water into freshwater wells then spoiling their quality.
Q. 22. What is wet land ?
Ans. Low lying areas covered with shallow waters are called wetland.
Q. 23. Name any type of forest management programme, usually undertaken.
Ans. Management of the existing forests to achieve sustainable targets.
Q. 24. Write two protective functions of forests.
Ans. (i) Conservation of soil and water.
(ii) Prevention of drought.
Q. 25. How much % age of geographic areas are covered by (i) dense forest (ii) open forest (iii) mangrove?
Ans. (i) 11.5 (ii) 7.8 (iii) 0.1.
Q. 26. What are the two types of dry tropical forests ?
Ans. (i) Dry deciduous and (ii) Dry evergreen.
Q. 27. Name the famous plants of dry tropical forests.
Ans. Dendrocalamus (a type of bamboo) and Santalum album (Sandal wood).
Q. 28. Write utility of construction of dams and reservoir.
Ans. Regular supply of water for irrigation, controlling floods and generating electricity.
Q. 29. Name the award instituted by Government of India in memory of Amrita Devi Bishnoi. Why it was launched ? 
Ans. ‘Amrita Devi Bishnoi Award for wildlife conservation.’
In 1731, she sacrificed her life along with 363 others for the protection of Khejri trees in Khejarli village.
Q. 30. Why do we seek to build dam?
Ans. Large dams can ensure the storage of adequate water for irrigation checking floods and also for generating electricity.
Q. 31. Name two main fossil fuels.
Ans. Coal and Petroleum.
Q. 32. Write the main cause of global warming.
Ans. High amount of CO₂ a green house gas, in the atmosphere due to burning of fossil fuel is resulting in global warming.
Q. 33. Name two renewable natural resources.
Ans. 1. Forests and 2. Water.
Q. 34. Name any one endangered plant species. 
Ans. Podophythum.
Q. 35. Name the person who started Appiko movement in South.
Ans. Pandu Kumar Hegde started appiko movement in Karnataka in 1983.


Select the correct answer out of the four alternatives :

1. Coal and Petroleum are :
(A) used in biogas production
(B) fossil fuel
(C) fuel wood
(D) inorganic fuel resources.
Ans. (B) fossil fuel
2. Paper industry is based on :
(A) Coal mines
(B) Wild animals
(C) Forest product
(D) Dams.
Ans. (C) Forest product
3. What is the desired minimum total coliform count level in the Ganga ?
(A) 500 MPN/100 ml
(B) 600 MPN/100 ml
(C) 1000 MPN/100 ml
(D) 1200 MPN/100 ml.
Ans. (A) 500 MPN/100 ml
4. Chipko Andolan was started by:
(A) Amrita Devi Bishnoi
(B) H.N. Bahuguna
(C) Sunder Lal Bahuguna
(D) A.K. Bannerji.
Ans. (C) Sunder Lal Bahuguna
5. Aforestation generally decreases :
(A) Soil erosion
(B) Rainfall
(C) Global warming
(D) Both (A) and (B).
Ans. (D) Both (A) and (B).
6. Large scale deforestation decreases :
(A) soil erosion
(B) rain fall
(C) Global warming
(D) drought.
Ans. (B) rain fall
7. Soil erosion can be prevented by :
(A) overgrazing
(B) removal of vegetation
(C) afforestation
(D) deforestation.
Ans. (C) afforestation
8. New and renewable sources of energy is :
(A) Energy from coal
(B) Energy from petroleum
(C) afforestation
(D) Energy from wood.
Ans. (C) afforestation
9. Forest area in India is about :
(A) 9% of geographical area
(B) 19% of geographical area
(C) 29% of geographical area w
(D) 37% of geographical area.
Ans. (B) 19% of geographical area
10. Greatest problem for water conservation is to reduce the amount of:
(A) Run off water
(B) Evaporation
(C) Precipitation
(D) Ground water.
Ans. (A) Run off water
11. Deforestation generally decreases:
(A) Global warming
(B) Drought
(C) Soil erosion
(D) Rain fall.
Ans. (D) Rain fall.
12. Non conventional source of energy is :
(A) Coal
(B) Wood
(C) Petroleum
(D) Biogas and solar energy.
Ans. (D) Biogas and solar energy.
13. Indian Government has instituted a National Award for wild life conservation namely:
(A) Dr. A.K. Bannerji Award
(B) Sunder Lal Bahuguna Award
(C) Khejri Tree Movement
(D) Amrita Devi Bishnoi National Award.
Ans. (D) Amrita Devi Bishnoi National Award.
14. Coal and Petroleum are evolved by conservation of:
(A) Dead bodies of plants
(B) Dead bodies of animals
(C) Dead bodies of marine animals
(D) Dead bodies of marine plants.
Ans. (A) Dead bodies of plants
15. Loss of biological diversity is the result of :
(A) Deforestation
(B) Afforestation
(C) Soil erosion
(D) All of these.
Ans. (A) Deforestation
16. Which of the following is an example of people participation in the management of forests ?
(A) Khejri Tree movement
(B) Appiko Movement
(C) Chipko Andolan
(D) Arabra forest range of Midnapur.
Ans. (D) Arabra forest range of Midnapur.
17. Tehri Dam is situated on the river: 
(A) Ganga
(B) Yamuna
(C) Brahmaputra
(D) Satluj.
Ans. (A) Ganga
18. Fodder is obtained from :
(A) Bacteria and Nematodes
(B) Leaves of plants
(C) Water harvesting tanks
(D) None of these.
Ans. (D) None of these.
19. One of the following industries is based on forest produce ?
(A) Lac
(B) Steel
(C) Oil and Petroleum
(D) None of these.
Ans. (A) Lac
20. Coal in addition of carbon contains:
(A) Chlorine
(B) Cobalt
(C) Nitrogen
(D) Potassium.
Ans. (C) Nitrogen
21. Burning of petroleum produces :
(A) sulphate of copper
(B) oxides of sulphur
(C) oxides of iron
(D) chlorides of sodium.
Ans. (B) oxides of sulphur
22. In kandi region of Jammu irrigation is done through:
(A) Ponds
(B) Kulhs
(C) Tanks
(D) None of these.
Ans. (C) Tanks
23. Indira Gandhi canal has brought greenery to considerable areas of:
(A) Gujarat
(B) Rajasthan
(C) Jammu & Kashmir
(D) Madhya Pradesh.
Ans. (B) Rajasthan
24. One of the main aim of conservation of forests is to preserve :
(A) Water
(B) Wildlife
(C) Biodiversity
(D) Trees.
Ans. (C) Biodiversity
25. Which of the following industries is based on forest produce?
(A) Timber
(B) Paper
(C) Spore equipment
(D) All of above.
Ans. (D) All of above.
26. Alpine meadows used to be grazed by sheep in :
(A) Cold winter
(B) Summer
(C) Spring
(D) All of above.
Ans. (B) Summer
27. Sardar Sarovar Dam is built on :
(A) River Ganga
(B) Indian Gandhi Canal
(C) River Narmada
(D) River Jhelum.
Ans. (C) River Narmada
28. In Maharashtra irrigation is done by:
(A) Bandharas
(B) Ahars
(C) Kulhs
(D) Ponds.
Ans. (A) Bandharas
29. The river Jhelum originates from :
(A) Dal lake
(B) Wular lake
(C) Chasma Verinag
(D) Sonamarg.
Ans. (C) Chasma Verinag
30. In Bihar irrigation is done by :
(A) Kulhs
(B) Ahars and pynes
(C) Bundhis
(D) Tanks.
Ans. (B) Ahars and pynes
31. In Himachal Pradesh irrigation is done by :
(A) Ponds
(B) Kulhs
(C) Ahars and pynes
(D) Tanks.
Ans. (B) Kulhs
32. Which of the following are not environmental friendly?
(A) Plastic cups
(B) Polythene
(C) Plastic buckets and Jugs
(D) All of above.
Ans. (D) All of above.
33. Non-connentional source of energy is :
(A) Coal
(B) Wood
(C) Petroleum
(D) Biogas.
Ans. (D) Biogas.
34. Coliform is a group of ……………. found is :
(A) Virus
(B) Bacteria
(C) Insects
(D) None of above.
Ans. (B) Bacteria

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