JKBOSE 9th Class English Grammar Tenses 

JKBOSE 9th Class English Grammar Tenses

JKBOSE 9th Class English Grammar Tenses

Jammu & Kashmir State Board JKBOSE 9th Class English Grammar

Jammu & Kashmir State Board class 9th English Grammar

J&K State Board class 9 English Grammar

1. The Verb from that shows the time of action, is called the Tense. 
1. I play in the evening.
2. I played in the evening.
3. I shall play in the evening.
2. There are main kinds of Tense : 
1. Present Tense                                2. past Tense                                     3. Future Tense.
3. To each Tense, there are four different forms : 
1. (i) Present Indefinite                  (or)                Simple Present
(ii) Present Continuous                  (or)                Progressive Present
(iii) Present Perfect Continuous
2. (i) Past Indefinite                       (or)                 Simple Past
(ii) Past Continuous                       (or)                 Progressive Past
(iii) Past Perfect
(iv) Past  Perfect Continuous
3. (1) (i) Future Indefinite              (or)                  Simple Future
(ii) Future Continuous                   (or)                  Progressive Future
(iii) Future Perfect
(iv) Future Perfect Continuous
4. Always keep in mind the following Tense Chart : 
Indefinite  Continuous  Perfect Perfect Continuous
PRESENT write (s) is / am / are writing has / have written has / have been writing
PAST wrote was / were writing had written had been writing
FUTURE will / shall / write will / shall / be write will / shall have written will / shall have been writing
5. The Present Indefinite (or the Simple Present) is used:
(1)  to express a habitual action; as,
He goes out for a walk every morning.
I get up every day at 5 o’clock.
My watch keeps good time.
(2) to express general truths; as,
The sun rises in the east.
Fortune favours the brave.
Honesty is the best policy.
(3) in exclamatory sentences, to express what is actually taking place at the present moment; as,
See, how it rains !
Here comes the bus !
There she goes !
(4) to indicate a future event, provided that the future time is implied by the context; as,
He comes (= will come) in a few day’s time.
We go (= shall go) to Shimla next week. T
hey leave for London by the next flight.
We sail for America next Saturday.
(5) in vivid narrative, as substitute for the Past Indefinite; as,
Sohrab now rushes forward and deals a heavy blow to Rustum.
Immediately the Sultan hurries to his capital.
6. The Present Continuous is used: 
(1) to express an action going on at the time of speaking; as,
He is writing a letter.
The boys are playing hockey.
(2) to express some habit or custom ; as,
She is working regularly these days.
He is always telling lies.
(3) to indicate an action that is planned to take place in the near future; as,
I am going to Mumbai tomorrow.
She is coming here in the evening.
(4) to describe a temporary action which may not be actually going on at the and bad time of speaking, as,
I am playing cricket these days.
We are learning French at school.
7. The continuous tense is chiefly used for deliberate actions. Some verbs are, therefore, not normally used in the continuous form. They are used only in the simple present. These verbs can be grouped as follows:
(1) Verbs of senses (involuntary actions); as,
feel, hear, see, smell, notice, taste.
(2) Verbs expressing feelings and emotions; as,
want, wish, love, like, hate, fear, prefer, refuse, hope.
(3) Verbs of mental activity, as,
agree, appreciate, understand, think, believe, forget, know, mean, suppose, remember, recognize, mind.
(4) Verbs of possession; as,
have, own, belong to, possess, owe, contain, consist of.
These verbs may, however, be used in the continuous tense if the action is deliberate, as,
I am thinking of a solution to this problem.
I am minding my new business.
8. The Present Perfect is used:
(1) to denote an action that has just been completed; as,
He has reached home safe and sound.
He has worked the sum.
He has just gone out.
(2) to describe some past event the present importance or effect of which is to be emphasised; as,
He has come to my house many a time (and so it is nothing strange that he has come again).
This disease has killed many children (and so something must be done about it).
He has travelled round the world (and so he knows much about other countries).
The students have gone on strike (and so the situation is serious).
(3) to express some past experience whose time is not given; as,
My grandfather has worked here for six years.
I have seen the Taj Mahal in moonlight.
I have studied in this school.
(4) to show a past action as continuing to the present; as,
We have lived here ten years (and we are still living here).
He has been ill since last week (and he is still not well).
Note the difference between :
1. We have lived here ten years.
2. We lived here ten years.
Sentence 1 shows that we are still living here.
Sentence 2 shows that we are living here no longer.
9. The Present Perfect, since it denotes present time, cannot be qualified by an
Adverb or phrase denoting past time.
We can’t say — He has come yesterday. He has reached home last night.
We should say — He came yesterday.
He reached home last night.
10. The Past Indefinite (or the Simple Past) is used: 
(1) to denote an action in the past; as, We learnt English at school.
He killed a snake.
My father taught in this school.
(2) to denote a habitual action in the past; as,
He came to me every evening.
He never told a lie.
He studied many hours every day.
(3) to denote an action going on in the past; as,
While they danced (= were dancing), we sang (= were singing).
11. The Past Continuous is used for an action continuing at a particular time or during a particular period in the past. The chief interest is not the time of action, but its continuity.
When I saw him, he was playing chess.
I was writing a letter when he came to my house.
12. This tense is also used with always, continually, etc. for persistent actions or habits in the past. 
He was always ringing me up.
He was always troubling his parents.
13. The Past Perfect is used to express an action completed before a certain moment in the past.
It is used whenever we wish to say that some action had taken place before another was begun or completed.
The patient had died before the doctor came.
I had finished my work by evening.
14. This tense is also used to express some unfulfilled desire.
I wish my father had been here at this time.
I wish I had worked harder.
Note : If there are two actions taking place in the past :
(i) The action that took place first is put in the Past Perfect Tense.
(ii) The action that took place later is put in the Past Indefinite Tense.
I had done my exercises when Hari came to see me.
I had written the letter before he arrived. It started raining after he had left.
15. The Future Indefinite (or the Simple Future) is used for an action that has still to take place; as, 
I shall see him tomorrow.
They will play a match in the evening.
16. The Future Continuous is used to express an action going on at some point in future time; as, 
I shall be reading the paper then.
They will be playing a match at that time.
17. This tense is also used to indicate some future plan; as,
We shall be staying there for a week.
I shall be visiting this place regularly.
(1) The Future Indefinite Tense (Simple Future) indicates some point of time in the future.
(2) The Future Continuous Tense (Progressive Future) indicates some period of time in the future.
(3) In the following sentences, the use of Future Indefinite seems to be as appropriate as the use of Future Continuous :
1. I shall do this work at 7 a.m. tomorrow. (Future Indefinite)
2. I shall be doing this work at 7 a.m. tomorrow. (Future Continuous)
But note the difference in the meanings of these two sentences :
1. I shall do this work at 7 a.m. tomorrow.
(and I shall not start earlier than that.)
2. I shall be doing this work at 7 a.m. tomorrow.
(I shall start before 7 a.m. and shall continue working even after 7 a.m.)
The Future Indefinite Tense shows that the action begins at the stated future moment. The Future Continuous Tense shows that the action began before the stated moment in the future.
18. The Future Perfect is used to indicate the completion of an action by a certain future time; as,
I shall have finished my homework by evening.
She will have cleaned the room before you reach there.
19. The Perfect Continuous is used when the action continues for some duration of time. In order to express the duration of time, the preposition for or since is used.
For is used when the period of time taken by the action is to be mentioned.
For fifteen minutes; for half an hour; for a month; for three years; for a long time.
Since is used when the point of time at which the action began is to be mentioned.
Since Sunday; since. breakfast; since yesterday; since Diwali; since January 1988; since the first of May.
20. The Present Perfect Continuous is used when an action, started in the past,
is still continuing.
He has been learning English for two years.
They have been reading this book since morning.
21. The Past Perfect Continuous is used to indicate that the activity continuous and that it was still going on at some point or period of time in the past.
When I reached there at 2 p.m., he had been waiting for me since 1:30 p.m.
It had been raining since morning when you rang me up.
22. The Future Perfect Continuous is used when an action is to continue till some point of time or for some period of time in the future.
It emphasizes the continuity of an action up to a certain point of time in the future.
By 6 o’clock, I will have been sitting here for ten hours.
He joined this office in the month of March.
By December, he will have been working here for ten months.

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